Consultation with Harah

Some pointers to consider: 

  • Why is this a relevant topic, why is this worth discussing?
  • What are the implications for stakeholders today? 
  • What is the discourse in Singapore?
  • Why focus on micro?
  • How do you define nostalgia? What is the measurement for it? Any examples for nostalgia design?
  • How to define nostalgic reflection?
  • Combine Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle and Prochaska and Diclemente’s Stages of Change Model to form new framework

Essay Outline

INTRODUCTION

  • Modernisation
    • Changing of the family structure
    • Families living apart (HDBs)
    • Children sent to child care instead of being cared for by grandparents
  • The generation gap is defined by William Safire as a “frustrating lack of communication between young and old or a useful stretch of time that separates cultures within a society, allowing them to develop their own character”
    • Younger generation exposed to new ideologies and beliefs in today’s mobile, rapid-evolving world
    • Form their own unique set of perceptions, values and behaviours
    •  Might not be acceptable by the older generation
    • Misunderstanding, conflict, family estrangement
  • Manifested into ageism and negative stereotypical views of ageing being deeply entrenched in our culture, mindsets and attitudes
    • Seniors may internalise these negative messages
      • Higher depression rates and higher stress levels
      • Accelerates disconnection from society and physical decline
    • Younger generations hold these negative images of ageing
      • View ageing as “undesirable”
      • Severely diminish their own chances of healthy ageing
    • Becomes a vicious cycle when the young become the old
    • However, no one should take the “blame” for the generation gap. This is a part of standard social change. The real concern is how we should aim to view this generational divide in a positive light and use it to our advantage.
    • DPM Heng Swee Keat mentioned intergenerational divide is one of challenges to overcome for social cohesion at 2019 Singapore Summit
  • This project titled “Shifting Mindsets, Bridging Generations”
    • Explores how thinking can be shifted and how generations can be connected through cooperative play and experiential learning
    • These face-to-face interventions create opportunities for positive interactions between the young and the old
    • Through the process, participants will engage in co-creation activities and reflective practice which would help develop empathy and understanding between the generations
    •  Mitigate age stigmatisation
    • Influence participants to embrace intergenerational relationships and encourage them to be agents of change in our society.
    • Frameworks and tools to inform current and future changemakers 

BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

  • Ageism (Dr. Robert Butler)
    • Personal ageism
      •  Self-inflicted
      • Reverse ageism (on youths)
    • Institutional ageism
      • Mandatory retirement (SG is raising retirement age)
    • Intentional ageism
      • Marketing and media stereotypes
      • Not hiring someone for a job due to age (TAFEP)
    • Unintentional ageism
      • Lack of procedures to assist (some programmes do not integrate intergenerational design – afterthought)
      • Lack of built environment (government being more aware)

OUTLINE THE DISCOURSE

    • Macro level (Discourse in Singapore) focus on micro. Why?
      • Government has implemented a slew of policies to provide affordable high-quality healthcare amenities, promote active ageing, design and build new models of ageing-in-place, and assist workplace discrimination prevention.
    • Meso level
      • Social service organisations (SSOs) are providing pro bono welfare services for the needy, and befriending programmes that helps seniors at risk of social isolation
    •  However, at the micro level
      • There seem to be insufficient interventions
      • Research shows that poor family relationships is one of the stronger predictors of ageist attitudes (Kennison et al.).
      • Thus, it is important for us to rethink our familial relationships before we critique how the rest of society treats older adults.
      • With proper design interventions (Designs for successful ageism reduction interventions could utilise either direct or extended contact (see Cameron et al., 2011; Jarrott & Smith, 2011) or a combination of both
      • Ageism could be curbed
      • Tap on the potentials of the older adults as a hidden resource
      • We can also have healthier and more prosperous societies
  • Intergenerational design (Ken Smith: “proactive approach to anti-ageism”) 
    • 10 principles by The Age of No Retirement
      • Safe and secure
      • Clear and institutive
      • Time-efficient
      • Delightful
      • Accessible
      • Human connection
      • Flexibility
      • Right effort
      • Empowering
      • Sustainable
    • Intergenerational programming/practice
      • Good quality time
      • Less ageist attitudes
      • 4 levels of interactions for intergenerational practice
    • Intergenerational space
      • Home
      • Neighbourhood
      • Workplace
  • Environmental design (Brain research)
    • 5 principles
      • Spaces with comfortable “areas of discovery.”
      • Opportunities for the students to take responsibility for their own learning
      • Familiar objects, furniture, pictures, and other décor that help to bridge connections between the child’s home life, the real world, and the classroom
      • Formal and informal opportunities for dialogue
      • Opportunities for meaningful problem solving (stimulating the prefrontal lobe) (hands-on)
    • Guidelines for designing intergenerational program environments:
      • Convey a sense of welcome for all who enter and use the setting
      • Organise spaces to counter social isolation but not violate people’s need for privacy
      • Avoid stereotypical cues that convey negative inferences about people of a certain age group
      • Empower participants in making decisions about the uses of space (e.g., adapt shared governance that encourages participants to provide input that is valued by staff)
      • Incorporate the arts (music, drama, visual arts, etc.) and opportunities for inventive play as a means of mental stimulation and social engagement.
  • Narratives/Memories/Nostalgia (Clay Routledge) (why?)(what about memories) (nostalgia definition? Measurement?) Egs nostalgic design
    • Nostalgia remind people of a past filled with social connections
      • Makes them feel connected and motivated to connect
    • After engaging in nostalgic reflection (reflection?)
      • People feel more socially valued, socially confident
      • Optimistic about being able to form and maintain close relationships
    • Nostalgia focuses the mind on what is most important for the good life: family, close friends, community, and the rituals and traditions
      • Help preserve a social and cultural fabric
      • Nostalgia may transfer meaning across generations
      • Recent research found that when young adults read the nostalgic narratives of older adults, they also experienced nostalgia as well as the feelings of social connection and meaning that nostalgia generates
      • Nostalgia as a guide to meaning in life
    • Kolb’s experiential learning cycle (find egs)
    • Cooperative play
      • Storytelling
      • Co-creation
      • Reflective practice
  • Design as a healer (one of the latest trends in 2019 by IDEO)
    • Absence of emotional and mental well-being
    • Sense of purpose and meaning in life
  • Stages of Change or Transtheoretical Model, which was introduced in the late 1970s by researchers James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente
  • Combine Kolb and stages of change to form new framework
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